1D Elements in Meshing for Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
One Dimensional (1D) Elements, also commonly known as line elements are used in Finite Element Analysis (FEA) problems that are predominately consist of long members which are exceptionally long compared to the measurement of the cross section of the profile (L/r > 20), expected failure to be of bending nature and consistent material properties over the entire model. They are also easier to model compared to 2D or 3D and solving time is way faster than 2D or 3D models.
To effectively use 1D Elements, one must be very familiar with the Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory. The Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory is effectively a model for how beams behave under axial forces and bending. The two primary assumptions made by the Bernoulli-Euler Beam Theory are that ‘plane sections remain plane’ and that deformed beam angles (slopes) are small.
For the use of One Dimensional (1D) Elements or line elements in Finite Element Analysis (FEA) problems, there are 3 major types of 1D Elements; CROD, CBAR & CBEAM.
CROD Elements are only able to allow the definition of tension, compression, and torsion. It is mostly used in situations where the problem presented are of the easiest and most direct manner.
CBAR Elements are able to define a simple beam that consists of tension, compression, torsion, and bending. It is mostly used in situations where the cross-section of the structure and its properties are constant, symmetrical and are of not open channel sections nature.
CBEAM Elements are able to define a beam that consists of tension, compression, torsion, and bending. It is mostly used in situations where complex cross sections are presented and its shear center and neutral axis must coincide.
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