Thermal analysis is a study of material properties as they are subjected to change in temperature. In a constructed manner, thermal analysis is also used to study the heat transfer through the structures where parameters such as but not limited to heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered. In metal production, thermal analysis is used as a production technique to aid the production process. Techniques used are as follows: Annealing. Annealing is used for reducing strength (so as to aid in processing), improve ductility and toughness, refine grain size. Here materials are heated above their recrystallization temperature and are furnace cooled at a controlled rate up to certain temperature (where all process changes are complete) and then it can be air cooled. Normalizing Annealing is time consuming and when maximum softness and ductility is not required normalizing can be used. Here materials are heated above their recrystallization temperature and then are cooled in still air (no controlled uniform cooling like annealing). Annealing produces material with uniform properties but with normalizing cooling will be different at different locations and hence properties. Quenching It is rapid cooling of the heated metals. Different quench rates were possible using different quenchants (water, Brine, oil, moth balls etc.). Unlike normalizing and annealing, quenching always doesn’t give same properties. For e.g. in Precipitation hardening (for increasing strength of nonmetals) quench produces a structure which is soft and ductile and a solution which is non equilibrium supersaturated single phase solid solution. And also crystal structure is not changed. But in Steel quench produces non equilibrium supersaturated single phase solid solution but is hard and brittle (martensitic). Tempering Done after quenching. A controlled reheat in the stable phase region (no recrystallization and we avoid it) to increase ductility and toughness at the expense of hardness and strength. In steels, quench and temper are used to produce tempered martensitic having the superior combination of strength and toughness. A fundamental approach would also require the understating of the types of a computational analytical solution [applies to both Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)] pertaining to the thermal analysis: Linear solutions. In a linear solution, the material thermal properties do not change with time or temperature and there is no radiation. It can be confusing for some solvers to define a linear solution, as the default solution strategy is nonlinear, and will only revert to a linear solution in the absence of radiation and other nonlinear effects. Nonlinear solutions. In a nonlinear solution, the material thermal properties can vary with temperature. Thermal boundary conditions and loading can also vary with temperature. As mentioned, the presence of radiation will force a nonlinear solution. Examples of nonlinearity include thermal conductivity, convective heat transfer coefficient and applied heat flux from the source as a function of temperature. Nonlinear analysis requires a load incrementing strategy with the total thermal loading broken down into successive steps. This is exactly analogous to structural nonlinearity. Steadystate analysis. The steadystate in a thermal event occurs when the temperature distribution and all thermal flows stabilize and remain constant through time. The steadystate can be calculated directly by performing an energy balance assuming this stabilized condition. Steadystate conditions are often of interest to derive a temperature distribution over component, which is then used in a subsequent structural analysis. Transient analysis. In this type of analysis, the initial conditions are defined and then time stepping solutions carried out in response to the thermal loading and boundary conditions. The calculation can be carried out through to a steadystate condition, or to evaluate initial thermal shock loadings, for example where the steady state condition is not important. One of the considerations in the transient thermal analysis, somewhat analogous to a transient dynamic analysis, is an accurate calculation of the time step required. In the thermal case, there is a stability criterion that is often used to establish what this should be. It may be that the solver uses this time step automatically, or the user has control to set up one’s own time step. Time steps coarser than the stability limit is not advised. In some analyses, the rate of change of thermal effects is dominant at the beginning of the analysis, so time steps here will be critical. In other analyses, a nonlinear effect may occur well into the time history and require fine attend steps. Many solvers have adaptive time stepping that can, to some extent, deal with this variation in optimum time step. Having any thermal analysis challenges you wish to resolve? Drop us a mail at sales@nac.com.sg to discuss how Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is able to assist in overcoming them! Johnny Wong Senior Consultant, Partner NAC Consultancy Pte Ltd Relevant article(s): Introduction to Finite Element Analysis (FEA) How accurate is Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Simulation? A Brief introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
What is Fluid Flow Analysis?
Advancement in Science and Technology have resulted in an increasing demand for control analyses and posed various challenges to analytical chemists such as the need to develop new methods exhibiting as much selectivity, sensitivity, sample and reagent economy, throughput, costeffectiveness, simplicity and environmental friendliness as possible. Automation and miniaturization of solutionbased analysis are essential to make them fast and efficient for routine and research tasks.
Flow techniques have undoubtedly aroused a special interest in relation to many other automatic methodologies of analysis. Ever since segmented flow analysis was developed by Skeggs in 1957, flow techniques have been in a continuous evolution toward new developments. They have gained importance for clinical, industrial and environmental purposes as they allow highly reproducible fast determinations. There is no solid argument in favor of using any particular flow technique separately; rather, substantial advantages can be derived from their combination.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions.
In the background, the NavierStokes equations are the basic governing equations for a viscous, heat conducting fluid. It is a vector equation obtained by applying Newton’s Law of Motion to a fluid element and is also called the momentum equation. It is supplemented by the mass conservation equation, also called continuity equation and the energy equation. Usually, the term NavierStokes equations are used to refer to all of these equations.
NAC Consultancy predominately adopts the Finite Volume Method (FVM) for most of our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Fluid Flow Analysis. The FVM is a discretization technique for partial differential equations, especially those that arise from physical conservation laws. FVM uses a volume integral formulation of the problem with a finite partitioning set of volumes to discretize the equations.
The basic concept in the physical interpretation of the FEM is the subdivision of the mathematical model into nonoverlapping components of simple geometry called finite elements. In short: As we cannot solve the big problem directly, we divide it into smaller and more easily solvable problems and then get a unique result for the system as a whole. The response of the mathematical model is then considered to be approximated by that of the discrete model obtained by connecting or assembling the collection of all elements. However, this approximation is normally considered representative enough for most systems and physics.
Advantageous for adopting Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in your Fluid Flow Analysis
Development cost reduction:

 Using physical experiments and tests to get essential engineering data for design can be expensive
 CFD simulations are relatively inexpensive, and costs are likely to decrease as computers become more powerful.
 A quick assessment of design variations:
 CFD simulations can be executed in a short period of time.
 Engineering data can be introduced early in the design process.
 Comprehensive information:
 Experiments only permit data to be extracted at a limited number of locations in the system (where sensors and gauges are placed).
 CFD allows the designer to examine any location in the region of interest, and interpret its performance through a set of thermal and flow parameters.
 Enables the designer to simulate different conditions:
 Many flows and heat transfer processes cannot be easily tested.
 CFD provides the ability to theoretically simulate any physical condition.
 CFD allows great control over the physical process and provides the ability to isolate specific phenomena for study.
Advantageous for engaging NAC Consultancy for your Fluid Flow Analysis
Free preinquiry consultancy advisory for most suitable and economical application
 One of the fastest response time in the industry, attending to the most crucial and critical requirements
 Deep engineering domain knowledge ranging from design and forensic point of views
 Professional Endorsement (Local and/or International) on reports generated
 Price competitive package option tailored for SMEs using SolidWorks Flow Simulation
 Deep analysis package option tailored for the most demanding requirements using Altair AcuSolve
Have any fluid (Gas, Liquid or both) flow challenges that you need to overcome? Speak to your friendly consultant in NAC Consultancy or drop us a mail at sales@nac.com.sg to discuss how Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is able to assist in overcoming them!
Johnny Wong Senior Consultant, Partner NAC Consultancy Pte Ltd 
Relevant article(s):
A Brief introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)